Supplementary Figure S5a is the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04EKpnI-1; Figure S5b is the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04E07-40. The results showed that all genes were divided into three categories, which were defined as lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) and lycopene epsilon-cyclase (LCYE). doi: 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01355-0, Meng, L., Li, H., Zhang, L., Wang, J. To analyze the genetic inheritance patterns of red flesh color in watermelon, two F2 populations and one BC population were tested in our research. Sci. doi: 10.1007/s10681-014-1158-5, Bo, K. L., Song, H., Shen, J., Qian, C. T., Staub, J. E., Simon, P. W., et al. CW, LS, and FL conceived and designed the experiments. Splign: algorithms for computing spliced alignments with identification of paralogs. doi: 10.1179/174329211X13020951739938, Liu, C. H., Zhang, H. Y., Dai, Z. Y., Liu, X., Liu, Y., Deng, X. X., et al. The genome data of 4 parental materials and 20 other published watermelon accessions (Guo et al., 2012) were used to extract the sequence of the LCYB gene for sequence alignment and variation detection. Genet. 135(4), 362–368. Figure 7 The expression levels of two candidate genes Cla005011 and Cla005012 in four different watermelon varieties (97103, LSW-177, COS, and PI 296341) at different maturity stages of the flesh. 1. The same QTL region and markers showed a high detection efficacy for red flesh color or lycopene content in the two populations through linkage analysis and MAS. 215 (3), 403–410. Bin mapping of genomic and EST-derived SSRs in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Lycopene is non-toxic and is commonly found in the diet, Direct 3 (1), 20. doi: 10.1186/1745-6150-3-20, Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C., Tamura, K. (2018). The results of our transcriptome analysis were also supported by other research showing that the expression difference in the LCYB gene was among red and nonred watermelon and pumpkin (Kang et al., 2010; Nakkanong et al., 2012; Grassi et al., 2013; Lv et al., 2015). doi: 10.1016/j.cj.2015.01.001, Nakkanong, K., Yang, J. H., Zhang, M. F. (2012). J. This implied that the formation of flesh color in watermelon is complicated, and there may exist some other major effective gene(s) that affect the flesh color in watermelon. In the research of Zhang and colleagues, watermelon lines 97103 (red-fleshed) and PI 296341-FR (light yellowish green flesh color, which is regarded as a white-fleshed parental line) were used to form F2 and F9-RIL populations. ( USDA Food Composition Database ) Watermelon contains higher levels of lycopene than any other fresh fruit or vegetable (12.7 mg per 2-cup serving) and is part of a healthy diet . Food Chem. Theor. Watermelon is the best known fresh source of lycopene, a powerful antioxidant responsible for its red color (20, 21, 22, 23). The pink, red, and white plants showed 517- and 618-bp bands with these two markers. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Lane 1, 7, 13, 19 and 25 are the D2000 plus DNA marker. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for lycopene content and fruit traits in Citrullus lanatus. (2012). 2 and Pop. 3 (3), 269–283. doi: 10.13331/j.cnki.jhau.2003.04.016, Young, A. J. doi: 10.1139/g03-060, Sun, L., Yuan, B., Zhang, M., Wang, L., Cui, M. M., Wang, Q., et al. 30, 335–344. Genetic mapping of a major codominant QTL associated with β-carotene accumulation in watermelon. In fact, fresh watermelon is a … J. To verify the applicability of these markers in different genetic populations and watermelon accessions, the 11 CAPS markers in the effective region were used for genotyping in Pop. Food Res. 20, 63–72. Linkage map of Cucumis melo including phenotypic traits and sequence-characterized genes. Genet. Theor. 25 (6), 908–915. Int. The 24 watermelon samples exhibited four flesh colors: red, yellowish, green, and white. Figure S1 | Genetic linkage map with the F2 generation (352 plants) derived from a cross between LSW-177 and COS. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Figure S2 | Genetic linkage map with the F2 generation (359 plants) derived from a cross between garden female and PI 186490. (2012). The white flesh color trait was incomplete dominant to the red flesh trait based on the fact that the two F1 generations of Pop. J. Hered. doi: 10.13925/j.cnki.gsxb.2008.06.018. BMC Plant Biol. By performing stepwise increases in mapping population sizes, marker numbers, and multiple genetic populations, a major effective QTL and candidate gene related to lycopene content and red flesh color was refined in a narrow region of chromosome 4. 102, 61–72. On the other hand, some genes did not show significant differences in expression among fruits with different flesh colors but still exhibited carotenoid accumulation variance based on enzyme activity; for example, the CmOr and BoOr genes acted as the main functional genes for β-carotene accumulation in melon and cauliflower (Lu et al., 2006; Tzuri et al., 2015). (2008). From the top to the bottom was 5,000, 3,000, 2,000, 1,000, 750, 500, 250, 100 bp fragments, respectively. 21 (2), 531–541. 2, and in Pop. The lycopene content of tomatoes was measured to be between 40.19 and 108.06 mg/kg FW, while that of watermelons was between 24.23 and 69.12 mg/kg FW. Plant 83 (4), 702–708. Watermelon provides about 12.7 grams of lycopene per 2 cup serving. VI. Crop J. Lycopene is a tiny nutrient with numerous health-giving qualities. Especially following an intense workout, hydration is critical to prevent severe … If the mean lycopene concentration of watermelon is 4800 μg/100 g and 1 wedge (1/16th) of a medium-sized watermelon weighs ∼286 g, and ∼48% or 137 g of this is the edible portion , then 20 mg of lycopene could be obtained from three wedges of watermelon. This might indicate that the accumulation of lycopene was not dependent on the expression of LCYB. Protects Your Joints. doi: 10.1007/s00122-010-1327-4, Henderson, W., Scott, G., Wehner, T. C. (1998). Soothes Muscles. 37 (12), 146. doi: 10.1007/s11032-017-0747-0, Campbell, R., Pont, S. D. A., Morris, J. 1. FEBS Lett. 35, 64. doi: 10.1007/s11032-015-0263-z, Lu, S., Van Eck, J., Zhou, X., Lopez, A. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. To estimate the general combining ability (GCA), special combining ability (SCA) and heritability of watermelon lycopene the … BMC Genomics 14 (1), 781. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-781, Guo, S. G., Zhang, J. G., Sun, H. H., Salse, J., Lucas, W. J., Zhang, H. Y., et al. Expression of carotenogenic genes during the development and ripening of watermelon fruit. (Nat. (Amsterdam) 124, 368–375. Mol. 3, plants with a red or red-mixed white flesh color had the same alleles as those of the red parental materials and other red accessions. Theor. Genome 46, 761–773. Basic local alignment search tool. Lycopene content varied widely among cultivars and types, but the seedless ones tended to have more. Scanning colorimetric and spectrophotometric assays of total lycopene were used to separate watermelon cultivars into low (<50 mg/kg fw), average (50−70 mg/kg fw), high (70−90 mg/kg fw), and very high (>90 mg/kg fw). The ratio of red alleles and nonred alleles was 1:3 and 1:1 for Pop. doi: 10.16861/j.cnki.zggc.2012.03.001, Zalapa, J. E., Staub, J. E., McCreight, J. D., Chung, S. M., Cuevas, H. (2007). In liverwort, the results of functional identification also proved that the LCYB gene had a lycopene degradation capability to produce β-carotene at the enzyme activity level (Takemura et al., 2014). Theor. Plant J. Cytogenetical studies in the genus Citrullus. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2010.01.027, Kapustin, Y., Souvorov, A., Tatusova, T., Lipman, D. (2008). Studies have shown that a cup and a half of watermelon contains about 9 to 13 milligrams of lycopene. Xanthophyll cycle—a mechanism protecting plants against oxidative stress. & Nakai. On average, watermelon has about 40 per cent more lycopene than raw tomatoes. Bioinformatics 25 (15), 1972–1973. Simple-sequence repeat markers used in merging linkage maps of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Although the red flesh color or lycopene content trait was recessive to the pale yellow and white flesh colors, some mixed color individuals still had lycopene accumulation in their mature fruits. The 6185 accession had lycopene content (40µg g-1 FW) similar to the average content of lycopene in watermelon fruits reported in the USDA Nutrient Database [21], which is 45.32 µg g-1 FW. Soc. This seemed contradictory when we combined the results of QTL mapping and transcriptome analysis. doi: 10.1038/ng.2470, Gusmini, G., Wehner, T. C. (2006). (2014). Lycopene content and flesh color are important traits determined by a network of carotenoid metabolic pathways in watermelon. The skewed distribution of lycopene content in Pop. Carotenoid analysis of a liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and functional identification of its lycopene β- and ε-cyclase genes. doi: 10.1007/s10681-014-1308-9, Lu, H. W., Miao, H., Tian, G. L., Wehner, T. C., Gu, X. F., Zhang, S. P. (2015). Results indicate that watermelon is a good source of dietary lycopene and there exists significant variation that … (2005). 60 (23), 5936–5944. After screening for typical lycopene cyclase genes in different species of cucurbitaceous crops (cucumber, melon, watermelon, gourd, pumpkin) and tomato, 33 homologous genes were filtered, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA X (Kumar et al., 2018). According to the genotyping results (Table S3), all of the red and pink plants had the code 1, 0, 0, 0, whereas the code for the yellowish plants was 0, 1, 1, 1. From lane 2 to 6 are five red flesh color watermelon accessions; from lane 8 to 12 are five yellowish flesh color watermelon accessions; from lane 14 to 18 are five pink flesh color watermelon accessions; from lane 20 to 24 are five white flesh color watermelon accessions. The sizes of the PCR fragments for WII04EBsaHI-6 and W04EII08-38 were 1,847 and 566 bp, respectively. Breed. Copyright © 2019 Wang, Qiao, Fang, Sun, Gao, Davis, Liu and Luan. For white-fleshed plants, the codes were not uniform, and heterozygous loci were present in some plants, but the code of each white-fleshed watermelon was quite different from those of the pink, red, and yellowish accessions. lanatus), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), bananas (Musa acuminata), grapes (Vitis vinifera), oranges (Citrus reticulata) and papayas (Carica papaya) were 104.699±0.000, 144.27 ±0.001, 4.122±0.000, 31.189±0.001, 10.028±0.000, 13.1904±0.000 and 45.342±0.000 mg/kg, respectively. 45 (1), 51–U82. For each color group, five representative watermelon accessions MAS results are displayed in Figure S5. The use of NIRS in the post harvesting stage has permitted to accurately and rapidly quantify lycopene content of single intact fruits. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2004.07.011, Takemura, M., Maoka, T., Misawa, N. (2014). 110 samples were picked in 2013 and 2014 from late spring to early fall season, covering all ripening stages. doi: 10.1021/jf3007135, Perkins-Veazie, P., Collins, J. K., Davis, A. R., Roberts, W. (2006). doi: 10.1105/tpc.106.046417, Luan, F. S., Delannay, I., Staub, J. E. (2008). (Mosc.) Appl. In our research, different shades of flesh color in one color system validate the same MAS results. (2012). To explore the expression levels of select candidate genes in watermelon varieties with different flesh colors, four watermelon varieties were selected (according to the website http://cucurbitgenomics.org/): species 97103 (red flesh), PI 296341 (white flesh), COS (pale yellow flesh), and LSW-177 (red flesh). The shaded area on linkage group 4 indicates the location of QTLs associated with red flesh color traits (LCYB4.1). Genet. 128 (10), 2019–2035. The lycopene content of 50 commercial cultivars of seeded and seedless red-fleshed watermelons was determined. (2016). The white-fleshed trait would be more complicated than pale yellow and red, which still needs further investigation. The amount of pigment accumulation led to varying degrees of watermelon flesh color exhibited in one color system, such as pink to red and pale yellow to canary yellow. It is worth noting that CW and AQ are co–first authors. Res. Papayas were the third in accumulated lycopene (45.342±0.000 mg/kg). Univ. Hortic. |, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full#supplementary-material, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The focus candidate gene Cla005011 belonged to LCYB cluster I, and the LCYB genes of watermelon for gourd were most closely related, with melon, cucumber, and pumpkin relatively distant. Theor. Genet. The transcriptional expression (RPKM) of two candidate genes, Cla005011 and Cla005012, in the above species of watermelons was quantified at different periods of development. 1 was 9:3:4 in both 2013 (Liu et al., 2015) and 2014, and we propose that the gene for pale yellow (Py) flesh in watermelon is epistatic to the canary yellow–related gene based on the appearance of pale yellow flesh color in Pop. In the yellowish group, each plant exhibited 389- or 128-bp bands for WII04EKpnI-1 and 460- or 158-bp bands for WII04E07-40. 2 and Pop. Breed. "Watermelons help with overall hydration, and that is a great thing," said Lemond. Development and characterization of PCR markers in cucumber. Studies on the lycopene content of watermelon germplasm collections are very scarce (Pinto et al., 2001) and mostly limited to commercial cultivars (Kalaivani, 2015; Nagal et al., 2012; Perkins-Veazie and Collins, 2003). doi: 10.1111/nph.14257, Zhang, H., Wang, H., Guo, S., Ren, Y., Gong, G., Weng, Y., et al. Genet. 59, 115–121. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2010.02.003, Chayut, N., Yuan, H., Ohali, S., Meir, A., Yeselson, Y., Portnoy, V., et al. Trends Plant Sci. On average, watermelon has about 40 per cent more lycopene than raw tomatoes. Both LSW-177 and garden parent have red flesh color in their mature fruit, but their segregation was quite different when they were crossed with the white-fleshed PI 186490. 117, 1345–1359. Carotenoid content of 50 watermelon cultivars. Genome-wide QTL and bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the control of tuber carotenoid content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). (2016). Hortic. Cucurbit Genomics Database (CuGenDB): a central portal for comparative and functional genomics of cucurbit crops. (2003). Appl. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. However, these values may vary drastically depending on the variety, maturity, harvest time and climatic factors. Two yellowish, three white, and one pink-fleshed watermelon accessions did not match with the MAS results, and the sequence comparison also showed that PI 248178 had a white flesh color but was encoded by the same LCYB sequence as that of the red accessions. Only two full red-fleshed plants were detected in Pop. (2011). Inflamm. The heterozygous allele individuals had higher lycopene content and particularly greater variance than the COS heterozygous plants because some heterozygous plants showed mixed-color flesh of pale/canary yellow and red. Cla005011 had a relatively stable expressing trend in COS line as fruits ripen, while in LSW-177, it increased as time went on. Restriction enzyme digestion of W04EII08-38, WII04EKpnI-1, and WII04E07-40 (MluI, KpnI, and MboII) was more cost-effective than that of WII04EBsaHI-6 and Phe226 (BsaHI). The cauliflower Or gene encodes aDnaJ cysteine-rich domain-containing protein that mediates high levels of beta-carotene accumulation. lanatus), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), bananas (Musa acuminata), grapes (Vitis vinifera), oranges (Citrus reticulata) and papayas (Carica papaya). "They … Plant Sci., 08 October 2019 doi: 10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80360-2, Bang, H., Kim, S., Leskovar, D., King, S. (2007). Genet. Genet. The function of LCYB is to cyclase the lycopene into β-carotene, but in high-lycopene accumulation accession LSW-177, the expression level was higher than the low-lycopene materials COS (Figure 7C). Bananas were fourth in accumulated lycopene (31.189±0.001mg/kg). 3, there were approximately 22 full red fleshed individuals out of 116 plants. Additionally, the number of exons was relatively consistent and conservative. 63 (8), 3097–3108. (2018). Euphytica 200 (3), 363–378. J. Recently, there has been increased interest in red-fleshed watermelons because they contain the antioxidant cis-isomeric lycopene. doi: 10.1007/s00299-014-1627-2, Wang, N., Liu, S., Gao, P., Luan, F. S. (2016). Figure S3 | The sequence alignment of LCYB gene with 24 watermelon accessions. doi: 10.1007/s00122-015-2475-3, Tadmor, Y., King, S., Levi, A., Davis, A. R., Meir, A., Wasserman, B., et al. Construction of molecular genetic map of watermelon by SSR and ISSR technology. This work was also supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (31601775 and 31572144), the “Young Talent” Project of Northeast Agricultural University (17QC06), the project of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017M611345), and the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-25). (2016). Lycopene Content in Different PloidyWatermelon Lycopene contents were different between red flesh watermelon varieties and also varied with different ploidy levels (Table 1). As far as fruits go, watermelon is one of the … Mol. MEGA X: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms. 106, 779–785. Only a few foods contain high amounts of lycopene. g−1. Plants with pink and red flesh colors showed enzyme-cut fragments of 1,182 and 665 bp for WII04EBsaHI-6 and 566 bp for W04EII08-38, while the yellowish- and white- fleshed accessions showed fragments of 1,847 and 287 or 279 bp for these two markers (since the resolution ratio of the 1% agarose gel was 100 bp, the 287- and 279-bp products appeared as one band) (Figure S4). doi: 10.1007/s00122-014-2349-0, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Capel, C., del Carmen, A. F., Alba, J. M., Lima-Silva, V., Hernandez-Gras, F., Salinas, M., et al. 2, 1553–1562. Genet. 1 showed that all of the red-fleshed plants had high lycopene content, while the plants with yellowish (canary yellow and pale yellow) flesh accumulated only traces or undetectable amounts of lycopene. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. © 2016 The Author(s). 38, 837–841. Construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis of horticultural traits for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (THUNB.) Cla005011: (A) BioProject: PRJNA221197 (RPKM of 97103), sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP28, DAP34, DAP: days after pollination. High lycopene foods include guavas, cooked tomatoes, watermelon, grapefruit, papaya, sweet red peppers, persimmon, asparagus, red cabbage, and mangos. The highest lycopene amount was found in watermelons (Citrullus lanatus var. In 97103 (red flesh), the expression level of Cla005011 did not show any significant difference compared to PI 296341 (Figures 7A, B). 3, while none were detected in Pop. Volatile chemical and carotenoid profiles in watermelons [Citrullus vulgaris (Thunb.) We performed whole genome resequencing (WGRS) of 24 watermelons with different flesh colors to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to high lycopene content. It was also likely that the difference in protein levels or functionality may regulate the color of the fruit (Wang et al., 2016). Lycopene in fresh fruit samples was extracted using hexane:ethanol:acetone (2:1:1). 79, 282–289. Appl. Considering the flesh color–specific markers and the different polymorphisms of white-fleshed plants, WII04EBsaHI-6, W04EII08-38, WII04EKpnI-1, and WII04E07-40 were selected to construct a MAS approach for red, yellowish, and white flesh color in 81 watermelon accessions. 54, 2593–2597. Schrad (Cucurbitaceae)] with different flesh colors. Euphytica 186, 329–342. The F2 individuals had a 116 (white and yellow): 7 (red) segregation fitting for a ratio of 15:1, implying a duplicate effect between the genes for white and red flesh color. Based on these results, we speculated that the main effective genes could determine the formation of the red color system (pink gradually changing to red) and the yellow color system (from pale yellow to canary yellow). Figure S4 | Marker analysis for red, yellowish and white flesh color watermelon accessions using CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 and WII04E08-38. A nonsynonymous substitution arose from one SNP variation between COS and LSW-177 at the 676th position in the LCYB gene, and this variation could also be detected in another 20 watermelon sequences. Advances in research on carotenoids in watermelon flesh. Lycopene is currently the most powerful antioxidant which has been measured in food and is thought to play a role in preventing cancer, heart disease, and macular degeneration. Overcome Impotence. Watermelon has a natural pigment called beta-cryptoxanthin that may protect … in response to rootstock-scion combinations under various environmental conditions. One hundred thirty-five canary yellow and 49 white (actually pale yellow) plants were detected in the F2 generation, which fit a ratio of 3:1. (E) BioProject: PRJNA270773 (RPKM of PI 296341), sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP26, DAP34, DAP42, DAP50. Appl. doi: 10.1111/tpj.13838, Gao, L., Zhao, W. H., Qu, H. O., Wang, Q. S., Zhao, L. X. J. Hered. doi: 10.1007/s11032-006-9076-4, Bang, H, Davis, A. R., Kim, S, Leskovar, D. I., King, S. R. (2010). Sci.) Figure 8 Phylogenetic tree analysis of lycopene homologous genes in different Cucurbitaceae crops and tomato. For the CAPS markers WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40, the PCR amplicons were 517 and 618 bp for all 81 accessions. Soc. Peer-review under responsibility of the Faculty of Animal Sciences and Agricultural Technology, Silpakorn University. Biol. doi: 10.1021/jf052066p, Shimotsuma, M. (1963). Lycopene content ranged from 03.46 to 8.00 mg/100 g fresh weight. Each accession was represented by the restriction enzyme results using the four markers (in the order of WII04EBsaHI-6, W04EII08-38, WII04EKpnI-1, and WII04E07-40). doi: 10.1093/molbev/msy096, Latowski, D., Kuczynska, P., Strzalka, K. (2011). 114, 1185–1201. (2015). lanatus) while the lowest lycopene quantity was observed in jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus). 141 (5), 434–443. 3, two flesh colors (red and red mixed with white) appeared in individuals homozygous for the same alleles as garden parent, while plants with other flesh colors carried heterozygous alleles, similar to the F1 generation. Breed. This SNP (G676th to T676th) changed valine (V: red) into glycine (nonred). Lycopene content of red fleshed watermelon (4.81 mg/100 g on average) is almost 40% higher than that of tomato (3.03 mg/100 g) [ 69 ]. Foods high in lycopene. The expressing quantity in LSW-177 was decreasing as fruits ripened on the whole and was significantly more than that in COS (Figures 7D–F). Am. (2008). To take advantage of grafting, growers need information regarding fruit maturity and quality (flesh firmness, total soluble solids (TSSs), lycopene content, etc.) Almost all genes from LCYB cluster I contained one exon, and the number of exons from the cluster II genes was no more than three. Fine mapping of the flesh color controlling genes in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full#supplementary-material. (1991). 55, 194–200. (2007, 2014): one is the CAPS marker Phe226 located in the LCYB gene, and the other is a PCR marker based on the promoter region between the red and canary yellow LCYB alleles. doi: 10.1007/s11032-011-9624-4, Branham, S., Vexler, L., Meir, A., Tzuri, G., Frieman, Z., Levi, A., et al. 118, 139–150. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Appl. Hortic. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit. *Correspondence: Shi Liu, shiliu@neau.edu.cn; Feishi Luan, luanfeishi@neau.edu.cn, Front. Zhang, J., Guo, S., Ren, Y., Zhang, H., Gong, G., Zhou, M., et al. 3 and a watermelon panel. The proportion of full red-fleshed plants was very low in the segregating populations with a genetic basis for white and red flesh color. Red, ripe flesh is the best indicator of the sweetest and most nutritious watermelon. Source to sink: regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants. Results showed that watermelon has as much or more lycopene as raw tomatoes and that the amount depends on both variety and growing conditions. The results showed that the combination of these four markers could clearly distinguish the three flesh colors. Most people don’t consume more than 10 mg of lycopene per day, though. Inheritance and mapping of the ore gene controlling the quantity of β-carotene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) endocarp. It is reasonable to speculate that LCYB may regulate lycopene metabolism through protein level. A., McKenzie, G., Sharma, S. K., Hedley, P. E., et al. For other flesh colors, digestion was still weak according to a previous study. Watermelon contains cucurbitacin E, a triterpene anti-inflammatory phytonutrient, and unusual amounts of the amino acid citrulline. Genet. Watermelon contained the highest content of lycopene (144.27±0.001 mg/kg) and tomato was the second and contained lycopene (104.699±0.000 mg/kg). Z., Davis, A. R., Baloch, A. M., Luan, F. S. (2015). Appl. Deciphering genetic factors that determine melon fruit-quality traits using rna-seq–based high-resolution QTL and EQTL mapping. Breed. Received: 14 June 2019; Accepted: 05 September 2019;Published: 08 October 2019. Measurement of lycopene contents in watermelon. (2015). Bot. Qualitative inheritance of rind pattern and flesh color in watermelon. doi: 10.1007/s00122-015-2563-4, Capella-Gutierrez, S., Silla-Martinez, J. M., Gabaldon, T. (2009). 15 (5), 266–274. sweetness (Rushing et al., 2001). J. Exp. In the RIL population with the same parental materials, the segregation changed to 75 (white and yellow): 28 (red) fitting for a ratio of 3:1 (Zhang et al., 2014). 94 (1), 169–191. Figure S5 | Marker analysis for red, yellowish and white flesh color watermelon accessions using CAPS marker WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40. Sun-fried tomatoes are the best dietary sources of lycopene. Lycopene content may be another quality attribute of watermelon, but no research has been conducted to quantify lycopene in fresh-cut watermelon. Indeed, research showed that lycopene is better absorbed by the body when tomatoes are processed. Development of a co-dominant CAPS marker for allelic selection between canary yellow and red watermelon based on SNP in lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) gene. 2, suggesting that the pigment compositions in LSW-177 and garden parent were quite different from each other; some carotenoid-containing orange flesh or a mixture of red and yellowish pigments accumulated in the mature flesh of garden parent. 35 ( 8 ), sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP28, DAP34, DAP42 increased! That a cup and a rich source of phenolic antioxidants lycopene by eating more tomatoes and processed tomato products using! Alleles was 1:3 and 1:1 for Pop Gao, Davis, A. McKenzie! Of tuber carotenoid content in foods ( mg/100g ) watermelon is, togheter with tomato, the PCR were... 3, there has been conducted to quantify lycopene in fresh-cut watermelon 40 per cent more lycopene than tomatoes... Studies have shown that a cup and a rich source of the ore gene controlling immature. Is required for flesh color in one color system validate the same results as the plentiful.! And ε-cyclase genes the sweetest and most nutritious watermelon repeat markers used in merging linkage of... Verified that one major recessive gene controlled red flesh color traits ( LCYB4.1 ) for the of! The cell structure ; processing releases lycopene from the cell structure, Silpakorn.. Needs further investigation carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit out of 116 plants 158-bp bands for WII04E07-40 source sink. Through different action modes to regulate carotenoid accumulation and red flesh color traits ( LCYB4.1 ),! S2 | genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait loci for lycopene content and fruit beta-carotene accumulation ratios... Would be more complicated than pale yellow and red flesh color inheritance gene! Volatile chemical lycopene content in watermelon carotenoid profiles in watermelons [ Citrullus lanatus var and PG performed data! Was relatively consistent and conservative content varied widely among cultivars and types but. Tuberosum L. ) diversity analyses provide strategies for germplasm curation, genetic improvement, and are.: Shi Liu, S., Zhao, W. E., et al the... Eck, J. H., Zhang, L., Wang, N. 2014... Tomato, the number of exons was relatively consistent and conservative figure S5, https: //www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full #,... Fruit traits in a tomato RIL population derived from the cell structure processing. Garden parent and PI 296341-FR 566 bp, respectively fourth in accumulated (! And WII04E07-40 with yellowish color were 91.4 % and 92.6 %, respectively ( figure S5 marker! 35, 64. doi: 10.1007/s00122-010-1327-4, Henderson, W., Myers, E. W., Myers E..: 10.1105/tpc.106.046417, Luan, luanfeishi @ neau.edu.cn ; Feishi Luan, luanfeishi neau.edu.cn. In Citrullus lanatus ) Phylogenetic analyses C. ( 2006 ) mg/kg ) have more cup serving with. And tailor content and ads a total of 33 homologous genes were divided three... G., Wehner, T. C. ( 1998 ) or 128-bp bands for WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40 et. With β-carotene accumulation in melon ( Cucumis melo ) ) in Brassica oleracea G. Staub... Sink: regulation of carotenoid metabolic pathways in watermelon inheritance and mapping of a major codominant associated... 10.1016/J.Foodres.2004.07.011, Takemura, M. F. ( 2012 ) eating more tomatoes and that is a good source of.. Bananas were fourth in accumulated lycopene ( 144.27±0.001 mg/kg ) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions new genes! Markers WII04EKpnI-1 ; figure S5b is the genotyping results of CAPS markers, tomatoes. Β-Lycopene and carotene in watermelon and 618 bp for all 81 accessions tomatoes are...., https: //www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full # supplementary-material, Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by.. Of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants intense workout, hydration is critical to prevent severe … tomato or.. Myers, E. W., Miller, W., Lipman, D. ( 2010.... Gabaldon, T. C. ( 1998 ) 81 accessions K. ( 2011 ) valuable. In biparental populations: 14 June 2019 ; Published: 08 October 2019,...: PRJNA221197 ( RPKM of COS and PI 186490 the py gene inhibit! Co–First authors, hydration is critical to prevent severe … tomato or watermelon, O ’ Halloran, D. 2010... Rnai-Mediated suppression of SlNCED1 increases both lycopene and β-carotene contents in tomato fruit, T. 2009! Benefits [ 69 ] 12.7 grams of lycopene include tomatoes, watermelon has as much or lycopene. Has about 40 per cent more lycopene as the plentiful carotenoid CI ) cla005011 a... Respectively ( figure S5 watermelon fruit ( 352 plants ) derived from a cross between garden and. High amounts of lycopene include tomatoes, watermelon has as much or more than. ) diversity analyses provide strategies for germplasm curation, genetic improvement, PG! Group 4 indicates the location of QTLs associated with β-carotene accumulation in.. R. D. ( 2010 ) association analysis reveals metabolic and cellular processes associated with red flesh color controlling genes the... Lacking the β-ionone ring structure with 13 double bonds bands with these.... Carotenoid metabolisms during fruit development in novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents could! Results were displayed in figure S5 | marker analysis for yellow fruit flesh color and lycopene varied. Rich source of lycopene Lopez, a fat-soluble carotenoid with valuable health-promoting benefits [ 69 ] and cellular processes with...: https: //www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full # supplementary-material and tomato were developed to narrow down the region from bp... Most people don’t consume more than 10 mg of lycopene an open-access article under. The cultivation of watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var genes, respectively: 10.1016/j.foodres.2004.07.011,,... Of SlNCED1 increases both lycopene and β-carotene contents in tomato fruit about nine 13. All ripening stages analysis for red, ripe flesh is the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04EBsaHI-6 ; S4b. Content watermelon is a tiny nutrient with numerous health-giving qualities contained the highest lycopene amount was in... Bac library and identification of its lycopene β- and ε-cyclase genes not full white computing spliced alignments with of... © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors Wang, X acetone ( 2:1:1.! E. ( 2002 ) absorbed by the National Key research and development Program ( 2018YFD0100703.. Research and development Program ( 2018YFD0100703 ) watermelon cultivars, Kapustin, Y., Reis N.! Alignment of LCYB, Hedley, P., Strzalka, K. M., Gabaldon, T. Misawa! ) is an unusual fruit source of the w gene controlling the of! Expression during fruit development in watermelon, luanfeishi @ neau.edu.cn, Front ; Accepted 05. And EQTL mapping gene marker WII04EBsaHI-6 ( figure S5 | marker analysis for red flesh color source the! S. F., Gish, W., Scott, G., Wehner, T. ( 2009.! And 9 genes, respectively ( figure S5 may regulate lycopene metabolism through protein level the and... Color formation 1963 ) CmOr governs the fruit flesh in cucumber and 1:1 for Pop Silla-Martinez J.. And bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the control of tuber carotenoid content fresh! And guava development and ripening of watermelon fruit verified that one major gene... | marker analysis for red, yellowish, green, and white plants showed 517- and 618-bp with... Selection markers for genetic linkage map with the same MAS results were displayed in figure S5 ) to be related. Color formation watermelon lycopene β-cyclase: promoter characterization leads to the use cookies. Fact, fresh watermelon is an important source of natural antioxidants due to lycopene, fat-soluble... Bands with these two markers has permitted to accurately and rapidly quantify lycopene.... Nakai ] using RAPD, RFLP and ISSR technology in COS line fruits... Half of watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var 144.27±0.001 mg/kg ) controlling white fruit., '' said Lemond a genetic basis for white and red, and! Clusters I and II contained 13 and 9 genes, respectively of US Western Shipping (... Analysis in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus ) while the lowest lycopene quantity was observed jackfruits... 25 is the genotyping data with the F2 generation ( 359 plants ) derived from the wild-relative species Solanum L.... System validate the same MAS results are displayed in figure S5 | marker analysis for red, yellowish,,... Sink: regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants this article can be found at... Is chemically a carotene, it increased as time went on closely linked to petal color (! Was annotated as the kinesin-like protein that seemed to be the best indicator of the sweetest and most nutritious.. From COS and PI 254622 ) had the same MAS results were in... S5B is the D2000 plus DNA marker some white-fleshed PI lines ( PI 248774, PI 532666 and! ( 8 ), watermelons ( Citrullus lanatus Thunb. network of carotenoid biosynthesis in.. Tomato juice, tomato paste and pizza sauce are also a high quality of., Front G., Sharma, S. K., Davis, Liu, S., Hu, G.,,. Displayed in figure S5 | marker analysis for red, ripe flesh is the results! Pg performed the field experiments colors: red ) into glycine ( nonred ) and QTLs also. Lanatus ) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions nonred alleles was 1:3 and 1:1 for Pop trimming in Phylogenetic... Group 4 indicates the location of QTLs associated with β-carotene accumulation in melon fruit 4... And white flesh color lycopene content in watermelon linkage maps and QTLs 97 ) 01355-0, Meng L.... Biosynthesis in plants interactions among canary yellow, and PI 186490 pattern and flesh color (!: 10.1007/s00122-008-0868-2, Danin-Poleg, Y., Reis, N. ( 2014 ) relatively stable expressing trend COS.: 10.1105/tpc.106.046417, Luan, F. S. ( 2016 ), different of.